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Companies such as Verisign, F5 Networks, Brocade Communications, Intuit and Mc Afee - as well as Home Depot, Michael's Stores and United Health Group, to name a few - all engaged in this fraudulent activity to varying degrees and were forced to pay fines and penalties and conduct time-consuming and expensive restatements of their books.
Options backdating is the practice of altering the date a stock option was granted, to a usually earlier (but sometimes later) date at which the underlying stock price was lower.
For example, if one signs a contract on February 1, one may backdate it to January 31.
Backdating is usually illegal; for example, one may use backdating to evade taxes.
The practice is illegal if it is not followed by proper disclosure and related expenses are not recorded in financial statements.In the context of mutual funds, a feature allowing fundholders to use an earlier date on a letter of intent to invest in a mutual fund in exchange for a reduced sales charge, e.g.Giving retroactive value to purchases from the earlier date.(RIMS) risk appetite risk assumption risk-based capital (RBC) requirements risk capital risk charge risk concentration risk control risk dashboard risk distribution risk financing risk gap risk identification risk index risk management risk management information system (RMIS) risk management process risk management techniques risk manager risk map/mapping risk pool risk prioritization risk profile risk purchasing group (RPG) risk quantification risk reduction risk register risk retention Risk Retention Act (RRA) of 1986 risk retention group (RRG) risk securitization risk sharing risk shifting risk smoothing risk tolerance risk types risk volatility road rage robbery robbery and safe burglary coverage, money and securities form Q robbery and safe burglary coverage, other than money and securities form D robo-signing rolling policy limits rolling stock rolling wrap-up root cause analysis (RCA) royalty interest Rule 11 sanctions running down clause runoff provision A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z safe burglary insurance safe deposit box coverage safe depository coverage Saffir-Simpson scale sale bond sales salesmen's samples coverage saline substances contamination endorsement salvage salvage value Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SARBOX, SOX, SOx) of 2002 "say-on-pay" provision schedule schedule bond scheduled limits scheduled loss "Schedule P" reserve schedule rating school board legal liability insurance school board liability coverage screening clients/cases Sears v.Commissioner seasonal risk secondary beneficiary secondary classification—special industry class secondary dependent properties secondary payer second surplus reinsurance Section 501(c) of the U. Internal Revenue Code Securities Act of 1933 securities class action claims securities deposited with others coverage form J Securities Exchange Act of 1934 securities insuring agreement securities valuation reserve securitization securitization of risk security holder exclusion security requirements seedsmen's errors and omissions liability insurance segregated cell captive (SCC) segregation selected tender selection self-contained policy self-insurance self-insurance pool self-insured retention (SIR) self-insurer's bond self-procurement taxes self rating selling price clause or endorsement Senior Claim Law Associate (SCLA) separate account series business unit (SBU) service fulfillment insurance servicing carrier servicing contractors rider setoff settlement lag settlement options settlement programs settlor coverage severability of exclusions severability of interests clause severability provision in directors and officers applications several liability severance pay severance pay exception wording severity sexual abuse exclusion sexual harassment sexual orientation discrimination share reinsurance share repurchases Sharpe ratio shortfall risk short-rate cancellation shrinking limits defense provision shrink-wrap agreement Side A coverage Side A-only coverage Side B coverage sidecar reinsurance Side C coverage sidetrack agreement signaling capital significant deviation silica silo factor simulation risk modeling method (often called Monte Carlo method) single entity coverage single-entry multiple company interface (SEMCI) single interest insurance single-owner captive single-parent captive single premium insurance single state registration system (SSRS) sinkhole collapse sistership liability exclusion size class slabbed slander sleep insurance sliding scale sliding scale commission sliding scale dividend slip small quantity generator smooth limits, aircraft soft costs coverage soft market soft target solicitor solvency margin solvency ratio sophisticated insured source revelation provisions spamming Spearin Doctrine special acceptance special causes of loss form (ISO) special crime insurance special damages special employer special flood hazard area (SFHA) special investigative unit (SIU) special litigation committee (SLC) special mobile equipment special or specialty risks special perils special personal auto policy (SPAP) special purpose vehicle (SPV) specialty risks special waiver specifications specific excess insurance specific limits specific loss limit specific rating specified causes of loss coverage specified holder specified perils coverage speculative risk speed to market split dollar plans split limits sponsor sponsored captive spousal coverage spousal coverage extension spread loss reinsurance spread of risk spread sectors sprinkler leakage coverage spyware SR-22 stabilization reserve stacking staff model health maintenance organization staff privileges staff privileges liability stair stepping stamp duty stand-alone excess policy stand-alone terrorism coverage standard deviation standard exceptions standard fire policy (SFP) jurisdictions standard form or standard policy Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) standard premium standard property policy (ISO) stare decisis stat card state average weekly wage (SAWW) State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) state funds State Implementation Plans (SIP) statement blank static risk modeling statistical codes statistical method statute of frauds statute of limitations statute of repose statutory accounting principles (SAP) statutory capital statutory coverages statutory inspections statutory insurance statutory law stay of proceedings stevedores legal liability coverage stevedoring stipulation stochastic dominance stock captive stock company stock option stock option claims stop gap endorsement stop loss stop-loss reinsurance (SLR) storekeepers broad form storekeepers burglary and robbery policy storm surge Stowers Doctrine straight life policy strategic risk strategic risk management strict liability strike coverage strike price strikes, riots, and civil commotions (SR&CC) warranty strike-through clause structural risk modeling methods structured finance structured settlement suability factor subbroker subcontractor default insurance subcontractor exception subguard insurance subject business subjective symptoms subject of insurance subject policies subject premium sublimit submission subordinated debenture Subpart F income subpoena subpoena duces tecum subprime loans subrogation subrogation provision subrogation waiver subsidence substandard substitute physician coverage endorsement "sudden and accidental" sue and labor clause summary judgment summons sump pump Superfund superintendent of insurance superseded surety rider supervision coverage supplemental extended reporting period (SERP) supplementary employee retirement plan (SERP) supplementary payments surety surety bond surplus surplus debenture surplus line surplus lines broker surplus lines insurance surplus notes surplus reinsurance surplus relief surplus share surrender survey survival action suspension of coverage endorsement swap swaption swing plans syndicate systemically important financial institution (SIFI) systemic discrimination system safety approach systems performance insurance A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z tacit renewal tail tail coverage tail value at risk (Tail Va R) or tail conditional expectation (TCE) takaful targeted enterprise risk insurance (TERI) targeted tender target risk tariff tax acceleration tax factor tax harmonization tax interruption coverage tax multiplier tax opinion insurance Tax Reform Act (TRA) of 1984 Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act (TAMRA) of 1988 technique of operations review (TOR) system technology errors and omissions insurance (tech E&O) telecommuting telemedicine Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) of 1991 temporary partial disability temporary storage location temporary total disability tenants and neighbors liability tender of defense tender offer defense expense 10/10 Rule terminal coverage terminal operator termination term life insurance terrorism terrorism endorsement terrorism insurance Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA) of 2002 Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act (TRIEA) of 2005 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2007 (TRIPRA 2007) Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015 (TRIPRA 2015) tertiary beneficiary testing coverage test modifier that particular part theft, disappearance, and destruction of money and securities coverage form C thermal pollution third country national (TCN) third party third-party administrator (TPA) third-party beneficiary principle third-party claims third-party employment practices liability coverage third-party liability coverage third-party lien third-party-over action third-party risk threshold threshold level threshold limit value (TLV) tie-in endorsements time element insurance time element loss time series analysis time value of money timing risk Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 tolling a statute of limitations tontine tool and die floater tort tortfeasor tort threshold total disability total insurable value (TIV) total insured value provision total pollution exclusion Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 toxic tort tradable risk trade disruption insurance trade dress trade libel trading loss coverage trailer interchange insurance tranche transfer of risk transfer pricing transfer risk pricing transit coverage transitional duties transportation network company (TNC) transportation expenses travel agents errors and omissions insurance travel insurance treaty treaty reinsurance trend analysis trend factor trespasser trial court trip lease triple excess coverage triple trigger theory trip permit trip transit insurance Trojan horse truckers downtime insurance truckers policy truckload (TL) trust agreement trust department errors and omissions coverage trustee trust fund T3 Lloyd's form turnkey operation twisting two-factor authentication A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z uberrimae fidei ultimate loss ultimate net loss ultra vires acts umbrella liability policy unaffiliated business unallocated benefit unallocated loss adjustment expense (ULAE) unauthorized insurer unbundling unconditional settlement clause unconscionable unconscious bias underground property damage underinsurance underinsured motorists (UIM) coverage underlyers underlying coverage underlying interest underlying premium underwriter underwriting underwriting agency underwriting capacity underwriting cash flow underwriting class underwriting cycle underwriting expense underwriting guidelines underwriting manager underwriting member underwriting period underwriting profit underwriting risk underwriting year experience undue familiarity undue hardship unearned premium (UEP) unearned premium reserve (UPR) unearned reinsurance premium unfunded retention unfunded self-insurance Unified Carrier Registration Agreement (UCRA) Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) of 1994 uniform resource locator (URL) Uniform Task Based Management System (UTBMS) unilateral contract unilateral extended reporting period provision unimpaired surplus uninsured motorists (UM) coverage unit statistical card universal life insurance unnamed pilot exclusion unoccupied unplanned retention unrelated business unrelated business income tax (UBIT) unrelated risk unreported claims unseaworthiness unusual expenses upset coverage use and occupancy insurance U. Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act usurped power utility service interruption coverage utilization review A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z vacancy permit endorsement vacancy provision vacant vacation liability valuable papers and records coverage valuation valuation date value-added services value-at-risk (VAR) value-based care valued business interruption coverage valued coverage valued policy value of risk (VOR) value reporting form values vanishing premium variable annuity variable interest entity (VIE) variable life insurance vendors coverage vendors dual interest coverage vendors endorsement vendors single interest coverage venturi scrubbers venue verbal threshold vermin vertical exhaustion rule vessel in navigation vesting vexatious litigant viatical settlement vicarious liability Video Privacy Protection Act (VPPA) of 1988 vis major vocational rehabilitation void voidable voluntary compensation endorsement voluntary compensation maritime coverage endorsement Voluntary Employees' Beneficiary Association (VEBA) voluntary market Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) voluntary reserve Volunteer Protection Act of 1997 voyage clause A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z wage and hour audit wage and hour claims wage and hour indemnity coverage wage and hour insurance coverage endorsement wages, maintenance, and cure waiting period deductible waiver waiver of inventory waiver of premium waiver of recourse endorsement waiver of subrogation warehouse operators legal liability insurance warehouse to warehouse clause warehousing war exclusion WARN Act exclusion warrant warranty war risk clause war risk insurance Warsaw Convention waste load allocation waterborne equipment exclusion water quality-based limitations water quality-based permit water quality standards weapon of mass destruction (WMD) wearable Web hosting website accessibility discrimination wedding insurance weighted average cost of capital (WACC) weighted average loss forecasting welfare and pension plan bond coverage well control insurance wellness program wet methods wharfinger legal liability coverage whistleblower claim whistleblower provision whistleblower statutes white hat hackers whole life insurance wholesale agent wholesale broker wholesale health insurance wholesale insurance wind or hail deductible window plan with average (WA) with average 3 percent (WA 3%) without prejudice with prejudice Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act workers compensation workers compensation and employers liability policy workers compensation catastrophe cover Workers' Compensation Claim Law Associate (WCLA) Workers' Compensation Claim Law Specialist (WCLS) work hardening working interest working layer workmanship exclusion work performed exclusion workplace harassment workplace tort workplace violence insurance worldwide insurance program wrap-around policy wrap-around risk financing program wrap-up wrap-up exclusion endorsement writ write Write-Your-Own (WYO) Program "written as such" written premium wrongful act wrongful death claim wrongful deprivation of a career opportunity wrongful discipline wrongful failure to employ wrongful failure to grant tenure or partnership wrongful failure to promote wrongful termination A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z year 2000 (Y2K) exclusion Yellow Book York Antwerp Rules A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z zero-beta asset Z-list zone rating zone system A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Copyright © International Risk Management Institute, Inc.
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